Samsun is a fairly large city on the north coast of Turkey. It is the provincial capital of Samsun Province and a major Black Sea port. The earliest layer excavated of the höyük of Dündartepe revealed a Chalcolithic settlement. Early Bronze Age and Hittite settlements were also found there and at Tekkeköy. Paleolithic artifacts found in the Tekkeköy Caves can now be seen at the Samsun Archaeology Museum. Samsun, formerly Amisos, was settled between the years of 760 - 750 BC by people from Miletus who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Samsun's ideal combination of fertile ground and shallow waters attracted numerous traders. In the 3rd century BC, Samsun came under the expanded rule of the Kingdom of Pontus and the Kingdom of Pontus had been part of the empire of Alexander the Great. However, the empire was fractured soon after Alexander's death in the 4th century BC. At its height, the kingdom controlled the north of central Anatolia and mercantile towns on the northern Black Sea shores.
Romans took over in 47 BC and later being replaced by the Byzantines after the fall of Rome. In 1200 Samsun was captured by the Seljuks and again taken over by the İlhanlılar. Samsun was incorporated into the network of Genoese trading posts and was taken by the Ottomans in the beginning of the 15th century, but the Genoese razed the town upon their departure. In the later Ottoman period the land around the town mainly produced tobacco. Samsun was connected to the railway system in the second half of the 19th century, and the tobacco trade expanded.
The ferry Bandırma took Atatürk from Istanbul to Samsun arriving on May 19, 1919, the date which traditionally marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk established the Turkish liberation movement in Samsun on that same date which traditionally marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence. Samsun is a stretched out city which extends along the coast between two river deltas which jut into the Black Sea. It is located at the end of an ancient route from Cappadocia in the time when it was the Amisos of antiquity. To Samsun's west, lies the Kızılırmak River, one of the longest rivers in Anatolia with a very fertile delta. To the east is the Yeşilırmak and its delta. The River Mert reaches the sea at the city, Yeşilırmak east of the city and Kızılırmak west of the city. Samsun has a typical Black Sea climate with high and evenly distributed rainfall the year round. Summers are warm and humid, and the average maximum temperature is around 27°C or 81°F in August. Winters are cool and damp with the lowest average minimum temperature being around 3°C or 37 °F in January. Precipitation is heaviest in late autumn and early winter. Snow is quite common between the months of December and March but this usually varies considerably from year to year, and the snowcover and temperatures below the freezing point rarely last more than a few days. The water temperature, like on the rest of the Black Sea coast of Turkey, fluctuates between 8°C and 20°C or around 68°F throughout the year.
Samsun-Çarşamba Airport is 23 kilometers east of the city center. Visitors can reach the airport via Havaş Buses which depart from Kultur Sarayi in the city center. The Bus station (Turkish: Otogar) is outside the city center, but most bus companies provide a free transfer there if you have a bus ticket. Passenger and freight trains run to Sivas via Amasya and visitors can inquire at the train station in the city center. Modern trams run between the train station and Ondokuz Mayıs University. Work is in progress extending the line east along the coast and it may reach as far as Samsun-Çarşamba Airport in future.
Leçons de Choses
- The designs of Magali Arbib can now be purchased online on her website -
- childrens furnishings and accessories as well as vintage items and art - all from France -
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