İnebolu is a town and district of the Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It is 590 kilometers or 367 miles from İstanbul by road and 89 kilometers or 55 miles north of Kastamonu. It is a typical Black Sea port town with many fine examples of traditional domestic architecture. The district covers an area of 302 square kilometers or 117 square miles and the town lies at an elevation of 120 meters or 394 feet above sea level. The exact founding date of İnebolu is unknown. İnebolu was initially called Ionopolis, given its Ionian location. Over time, the name Ionopolis metamorphosed to Inepolis, and then to İnebolu. During the Turkish War of Independence, arms and ammunition were transferred to Anatolia through İnebolu. The town was attacked and defended itself with determination, for which it was honoured with the Independence Medal by the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Atatürk initiated a campaign in İnebolu to reform personal appearance and civilize garments - Atatürk made a well-known speech about hats there. With the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923, the town's Greek inhabitants were exiled to Greece. Many of these emigrants settled in a neighborhood called Inepolis in the Athenian suburb of Nea Ionia.
There is little left of archaeological note in İnebolu, other than the ruins of its first, second and third fortifications.
The ruins of the first castle, most of which has been destroyed and upon which much has been built, are located in Boyran. The east wall of the castle extends from the İnebolu River, over the Abas hill, and up to the quarter called Avara. The ruins of the fortress walls are located around the cemeteries on the Abas hills. A part of the north wall of the interior castle, which is 6 meters high and 3 meters wide, still stands. The second castle stood where today's Karadeniz primary school is and where a few parts of the walls can still be seen. The third castle is on Gerisch Hill, from where the whole region of İnebolu can be seen. It is located south of the town and is of considerable height. There are also the undated ruins of a monastery, which have been heavily pillaged by artifact-seekers. Only some parts of the walls, large main entrance stairs, the baptisimal basin and a well remain. Greeks who live in İnebolu celebrate the 15th of August here by holding a feast.
There are many small towns scattered around İnebolu. To the east lie Abana and Bozkurt and to the west is Cide and to the south lie Devrekani and Küre. Küre and the larger Isfendiyar Mountains rise above the coastline, which is narrow and steep, with few sandy beaches. The sea around İnebolu is approximately 200 meters deep. The region's rivers flow down from the Isfendiyar Mountains through İnebolu and its surroundings to the Black Sea. The river beds are irregular and deep with strong currents. the important rivers around İnebolu are the Adıyaman Çayı, Doğanyurt Çayı, Gemiciler Çayı, Kızılkara Çayı, Koyran Çayı, Küre Çayı, Manastır Çayı and the Özlüce Çayı. River - (Turkish: Çayı). The town is surrounded by many hills of varying height. The most well-known are the Geriş hill (Turkish: Geriş Tepesi), which is 495 meters high, and the Islam hill to the southwest which is 589 meters high. Other surrounding hills are Darıca hill and Manastır hill at 789 meters to the east, Abas hill at 1261 meters and Keleştiren hill at 1260 meters to the west, Çuha hill to the southwest and to the southeast is Yukarı Bozu hill is 389 meters.
İnebolu offers many fine examples of traditional Turkish architecture in the Ottoman style. By the end of the 19th century many wealthy inhabitants İnebolu built large houses along the banks of the İkiçay river that divides the town. By 1890, the town had hundreds of beautiful houses built in this special style. The ground floor is built of stone and contains a cellar and pantry. Above it are one or two stories, each containing four bedrooms, one antechamber, a kitchen and toilet. Each of the floors is built so that it can easily be converted into one independent flat by closing a single door. This feature allows the married children of families to continue living in the same ancestral home they grew up in. Each floor also has its own separate street access. The rooms have many windows and each room has a corbel and framework which enables the women to look out onto the street without being seen. The ceilings of the rooms are high and covered in carved art. Hand-rails in the houses are carved from a single piece of wood. Most of the houses have roofs that are tiled with a special sea-stone called Marla. The tiles are wide, thin and heavy, and protect the houses from the strong northeast winds that blow across the Black Sea. The stone also provides an excellent insulation against heat. Each house has an orchard garden, where fruits such as plums, mulberries, apples, pears, hazelnuts and walnuts are grown. Each garden has a well, which is used to refrigerate foodstuffs during the hot summer days. The houses are painted with a special claret mineral pigment known as aşı boyası, which is highly resistant to sunlight and weathering.
The town has many hotels, motels, and inns as well as restaurants and cafes catering to tourists. There is no passenger boat service to İnebolu. However, the motorways and highways are sufficient and in good condition. There are several private bus companies which have scheduled bus service to and from İstanbul, Ankara and the provincial capital of Kastamonu. Nearby towns such Kure, Cide, Abana and Bozkurt can be travelled to by mini-buses which run many times a day. İnebolu has an oceanic climate. The warmest months in the summer are July and August and the coldest months in the winter are January and February. The coldest monthly average is 5.6°C and the warmest monthly average is 21°C. The annual average temperature is approx. 14°C.
Snowfall is heavy during the winter, but the snow dissipates rapidly because of strong winds.
Leçons de Choses
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